Gas Turbine Handbook: Principles and Practice 5th Edition, ISBN-13: 978-1482228885
[PDF eBook eTextbook]
- 475 pages
- Publisher: Fairmont Press; 5 edition (November 15, 2013)
- Author: Tony Giampaolo
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 1482228882
- ISBN-13: 978-1482228885
Newly revised, this new fifth edition includes a chapter on waste heat recovery and discusses this technology in detail including a the advantages and barriers to waste heat recovery, environmental restraints, thermodynamics of heat recovery, fluid properties, boiler, condensers, steam turbines, off design behavior and exhaust catalyst. This book shows how microturbine designs rely heavily on the centrifugal compressor and are, in many aspects, similar to the early flight engines and will illustrate how the approach of the microturbine designer is to minimize cost.
The supply of nonrenewable fuels such as oil and natural gas are basically fixed since they are formed at a negligible rate in relation to drilling activity. The future predicts increasing fuel cost and fuel shortages, and the requirement and incentives for heat and energy recovery will therefore be that much more important. As a result every effort must be made to improve utilization of our accessible fuel supply.
The topic of waste heat recovery and combined thermodynamic cycles was originally intended for a new book. However, since this subject is so closely associated with gas turbines is seemed appropriate to include an abbreviated version in this book. The principles of combining thermodynamic cycles may be applied to the reciprocating engine exhaust, incinerator exhaust, fluidized bed exhaust, and low efficiency boilers.
This effort is being provided to assist engineers involved in the design, specification, operation, maintenance, and installation of cogeneration equipment and systems. Chapter 12 will provide the basis for understanding the interrelationship of thermodynamics, heat transfer and power generation in the design, operation & maintenance of a combined cycle/cogeneration plant.
Because of its high exhaust temperature and high mass flow the most obvious source for waste heat energy recovery is the gas turbine. These two parameters (temperature and mass flow), which are released to the atmosphere and wasted in the simple cycle engine, combine to provide a significant source of potential, recoverable, power. Considering that 30% to 40% of the power produced by the gas turbine can be created just by recovering its exhaust heat without consuming additional fuel or generating any additional emissions is a benefit that should not be ignored. A gas turbine producing 100 megawatts in its simple cycle configuration can product from 130 to 140 megawatts in a combined cycle configuration. In so doing the overall plant efficiency would be increased from 35% to 45%. The actual economic advantage of any form of waste heat recovery system depends on the cost of the fuel being considered regardless of whether it is a fossil fuel or a plant based fuel. To be effective the project should pay for itself in a reasonable amount of time.
The heat generated by these units is often referred to as the topping units or topping cycle. The sensible heat in the waste exhaust may be recovered in a bottoming cycle. The bottoming cycle may be utilized directly as process heat or in a steam generator.
An example of a waste heat recovery estimate is included in Appendix C-16. Charts, tables and curves are used whenever possible to avoid complex computations and to improve the explanation of the WHR system.
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